We have several markers for the date of the death of Antipatros; the Marmor Parium places it in the archonship of Apollodoros (319/8); both Diodoros and Plutarch (Phocion) give a context for his illness of an Athenian embassy headed by Demades and his son, we know from IG II2 383b that Demades was still in Athens on the tenth day of the tenth prytanny of Neaichmos (320/19) which confirms the Marble's date as the tenth prytanny was the last of the civic year and had 35 days.
Athenian inscriptions also provide a definite terminus ante quem which is the re-establishment of democracy and the demise of the Macedonian backed oligarchy. The first decree that is certainly of the new democracy is one in praise of Euphron of Sikyon (SIG 317), the first part of which is a copy of the original stele which the oligarchy destroyed (due to his services being against Macedon). It is dated to the last day of Maimakterion and the 35th day of the fourth prytanny (the year was leap so 39+39+39+35 = day 152, we should expect the day to be 148 so it would seem the calendar had been retarded by five days, not surprisingly, due to the regime change.
The space between June 319 and December 318 is a long one, however and another consideration may help narrow it. Under the oligarchy the post of 'anagapheus' assumed great importance but by Gamelion 318 inscriptions seem to show a loss of prominence, the last inscription preserving the title dates to Skirophorion of Apollodoros (318). Errrington, in 'Diodorus and the Chronology of the Early Diadochoi 320-311 BC' Hermes 105 (1977) pp.478-504, opined that it was the dissappearence of the post of anagrapheus that signalled the demise of Phocion's oligarchic regime and, since Plutarch puts his death in a Mounichion this must be that of 317 (archonship of Archippos II).
Against this Williams, A NOTE ON ATHENIAN CHRONOLOGY, 319/8-318/7, Hermes 112 Bd., H.3 (3rd qtr. 1984), argues that the democrats may have continued the post and the loss of prominence is due to the restoration of democracy not just Antipatros' death as in Errington.
The loss of prominence of the office of anagrapheus
We are not dealing with a mass of evidence here;
It is immediately clear that the supposed 'loss of eminence' is a myth, the pre-scripts do not have a set pattern under any archon. The large number of embolimic days at the end of Philokles' archonship and the beginning of Archippos' amounting to almost two whole months needs explaining. Since the title of anagrapheus has assumed a position of importance by Archippos' fifth, prytanny the simplest solution would be to place Antipatros' final settlement of Athen's constitution.
This is at odds with the accepted time scale which takes 20 Boedromion 322 as the date of the imposition of a garrison on Munychia and by extension a new constitution upon Athens. Plutarch, Phokion 28.i does not specify a year, however and the three months between Thargelion (April, when large scale campaigning was first practicable) and Boedromion, seems a short span for Leonnatos to invade and die, Krateros to cross and join Antipatros to secure victory at Krannon, the negotiations which detached all of Athens' allies and Athens' own embassies.
Were the actual date 20 Boedromion 321, we could place the Athenian negotiations in the extended Thargelion of Philokles, when Antipatros, having detached the allies over the winter moved at the opening of the campaigning season to the site of Thebes (since it was in ruins he could not have overwintered there), the poignancy of the 'Old Rope's' choice of camp-site would not be lost on Athens. Plutarch describes two embassies to and from Antipatros which seem to be quite extensive. The introduction of the revised constitution would have taken up a lot of business at the beginning of Archippos' archonship. This explains the failure of anagrapheus to appear in any decree of Philokles better than any feeling of neatness or revolutionary unwillingness rock the boat, the oligarchs were quite happy to destroy the stelai of the democracy honouring benefactors of the anti-Macedonian regime; the first decree of the restored democracy, IG2 II448, is a replacement for one destroyed by the oligarchy.
If the Athenian settlement was only reached in Boedromion it helps to explain why the campaign against the Aetolians dragged into winter 321/0.
But what of the date of Antipatros' death? The restoration of democracy and the execution of Phokion?
We have seen that there was no 'loss of prominence' for the anagrapheis, but pushing the restoration of democracy back to the start of ArchipposII's archonship involves too much slack; it is clear that the restoration came hot on the heels of Alexandros' entry into Attica and that Phocion's death, in Mounichion followed swiftly.
IG2 II 387 records interaction between Polyperchon and the Athenians in Elaphebolion of Apollodoros' archonship, which corresponds to Xanthikos, generally assumed to be the terminus of the Royal Diagramma ordering the return of those exiled by Antipatros and the restoration of traditional governments.
We can take this as a terminus ante quem for the death of Antipatros but not the time limit of the Diagramma. Diodoros is clear that the Diagramma was issued in response to Kassandros' defection to Antigonos, it was not the first act of his new regime.
Diodoros has Kassandros make his move after he has word that Ptolemy will support him. The trip from Macedon to Egypt used to take twenty days by sea, but the sea-lanes would be closed between Pyanepsion and Elaphebolion making the communications take much longer than the forty odd days otherwise required.
Antigonos' help is also a naval task-force, putting his help in the sailing season of 318 or Mounichion, Thargelion or Skirophorion of Apollodoros' archonship. Since time must be allowed for the exiles to return the Xanthikos of the Diagramma must be that of 317 this in turn gives us a date for the attack on Megalopolis whose purpose at 68.iii 'to return them to obedience to the kings', ought to mean that the time limit of the Diagramma had elapsed.
Polyperchon's presence in Phokis can perhaps help too, the Diagramma was given to 'the envoys' - proedroi – 55.iv, to disseminate. Who were these 'proedroi'? In the past I think it has been assumed that they were in Macedonia for the funeral of Antipatros but that is too early for a decree contingent upon Kassandros' bid for power. Macedon was a member of the Amphyktionic Council which met in autumn at Delphi and in spring at Thermopylai, since autumn is too close to Antipatros' death an announcement at the spring session seems likely, Alexander had announced his edicts at the Pan-hellenic festivals and it would seem a good move for Polyperchon to follow suit, the four towns singled out ; Amphissa, Trikka, Pharkadon and Heraklaia are in Phocis and Thessaly, the very area the Amphyktionic Council most served (the Athenians also sent proedroi).
more to follow
When you think about, it free-choice is the only possible option.