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Detailed Timeline

359 BC

Death of Perdiccas III, King of Macedonia: Perdiccas leaves infant heir Amyntas; Philip II elected King of Macedonia

358 BC

Philip subdues Paeonians and Agrians

357 BC

Marriage of Philip II and Olympias, mother of Alexander

Philip captures the cities of Amphipolis and Pydna

356 BC

July 20 - Birth of Alexander III at Pella, Macedon

August - Philip captures city of Potidaea

355 BC

Birth of Cassander, son of Antipater, ruler of Macedonia after Alexander

354 BC

Philip captures city of Methone: Philip loses one eye

353 BC

Philip defeats Greek state of Phokis

352 BC

Persian noble Artabazus receives asylum at Philip's court

348 BC

Philip captures city of Olynthus (Chalcidice peninsula)

343 BC

Aristotle appointed as tutor of Alexander

342 BC

Philip's conquests in Thrace

Alexander gets Bucephalas, his personal horse

340 BC

Alexander regent in Macedonia during campaign of Philip against Byzantium; Alexander defeats Thracian tribe

Persia aids city of Perinthus against Philip

Probable end of the tutorship of Aristotle

338 BC

August 2 - Battle of Chaeronea: King Philip defeats Greeks, Alexander commands cavalry

Autumn - Establishment and first meeting of the Corinthian League: Philip confirmed as hegemon of Greece

337 BC

Spring - Second meeting of the Corinthian League: Philip reveals plans for invasion of Persia

Marriage of Philip and Cleopatra; Alexander and Olympias leave for exile

Autumn - Alexander returns from his exile in Illyria

336 BC

Spring - Officers Parmenion and Attalus take advance force into Persia

October [June] - Murder of King Philip; Alexander ascends throne of Macedonia

Autumn - Execution of Amyntas, son of Perdiccas III and heir to the throne; Execution of Cleopatra, widow of Philip, and her newborn son; Third meeting of Corinthian League at Corinth: Alexander confirmed as hegemon of Greece; Possible legendary meeting with philosopher Diogenes

Other events - King Darius III ascends the throne of Persia; Marriage of Alexander of Epirus and Cleopatra, sister of Alexander

335 BC

Spring - Campaign to the Danube; Battle of the Lyginus: Alexander defeats Triballians

May - Alexander crosses river Danube: establishment of northern frontiers

Summer - Attack on Pelium: Alexander defeats Illyrians

September - Alexander ends revolt at Thebes

Other events - Persian commander Memnon stops advance force of Parmenion and Attalus

334 BC

May - Alexander crosses Hellespont into Persia

May/June - Battle of the Granicus: Alexander defeats Persian defense force

Summer - Alexander captures Milete

Autumn - Alexander captures Halicarnassus, Persian stronghold; Alexander grants winter leave to newly wedded soldiers

Other events - Antigonus the One-Eyed appointed as satrap of Phrygia; Queen Ada re-instated as ruler of Caria

333 BC

Winter - Alleged conspiracy: arrest of Alexander of Lyncestis; Legendary miraculous passing of Mount Climax; Campaign against Pisidians

March - Alexander solves riddle of the 'Gordian Knot', Gordium

May - Alexander of Epirus invades Italy (defeated and killed around 331 BC)

May [July] - Alexander leaves Gordium

June/July [Spring] - Memnon dies of illness

Summer - King Darius III and Persian army leave Babylon

September [July] - Alexander falls ill at river Cydnus

September - Alexander arrives at Tarsus, Cilicia

September/October - King Darius III and Persian army arrive at Sochi, base camp near Mediterranean

November - Battle of Issus: Alexander defeats Persian King Darius III; Alexander captures Persian Royal family

Autumn - Parmenion captures Damascus: capture of Barsine, widow of Memnon and future mistress of Alexander and possibly mother of his first child, Heracles

Other events - Idarnes (or Hydarnes) re-captures Milete; Balacrus defeats Idarnes in 332 BC

332 BC

January-July [August] - Siege of Tyre

Spring [Summer 331 BC] - Statira, wife of Darius III, dies in childbirth

Summer - First peace offer of King Darius

July 29 [August] - Fall of Tyre

September-October - Siege of Gaza

November 14 - Alexander crowned Pharaoh in Memphis, Egypt

331 BC

Winter - Oracle of Siwa allegedly confirms divinity of Alexander

April 7 [Winter] - Foundation of Alexandria, Egypt

Spring - Return to Phoenicia

Summer - Second peace offer of King Darius

September 20 - Army witnesses total eclipse of the moon in northern Mesopotamia: single 100% sure dating of the Alexander period

October 1 - Battle of Gaugamela (Arbela): final defeat of Persian King Darius III

October 21 - Alexander enters Babylon

November 25 - Alexander leaves Babylon

December 15 - Alexander enters Susa

December - Campaign against the Uxians

330 BC

January - Alexander forces his way through Persian Gates: defeat of last Persian defence troops

Winter/Spring - Five months stay in Persepolis, ceremonial Persian capital

April - Campaign against the Mardians

May [Summer/Autumn 331 BC] - Battle of Megalopolis: Alexander's Macedonian regent Antipater defeats King Agis III of Sparta

May - Alexander burns Persepolis

July - Persian King Darius III murdered by his kinsmen

Summer - Alexander dismisses allied troops

Autumn [Summer 329 BC] - Alleged but unlikely legendary meeting with the Queen of the Amazons

Autumn - Revolt of Satibarzanes, satrap of Aria; Satibarzanes killed by officer Erigiyus

October - Alleged conspiracy: execution of officers Philotas and his father Parmenion; Craterus becomes second in command; execution of Alexander of Lyncestis

329 BC

Spring - Alexander crosses Hindu Kush into Central Asia

May - Arrest of Bessus, usurper of Persian throne

Summer - Alleged massacre of the Branchidae; Founding of Alexandria-the-Furthest; Battle of the Iaxartes: Alexander defeats Scythians; Rebel leader Spitamenes annihilates Macedonian forces at Maracanda

328 BC

Spring - Submission of Pharasmenes, ruler of the Chorasmians

Spring/Summer/Autumn - Army split in five divisions against rebellions in Central Asia

Autumn - Defeat of rebel leader Spitamenes; Alexander kills officer Cleitus the Black during brawl

327 BC

Winter - Attempt to introduce 'proskynesis'; Alleged conspiracy: execution of court historian Callisthenes

Spring - Alexander captures 'Sogdian Rock', rebel stronghold; Surrender of rebel Chorienes; Defeat of rebels Catanes and Austanes

Spring [August] - Marriage to Roxane, daughter of Bactrian noble Oxyartes

Summer - Invasion of India

326 BC

Winter - Siege of Massaga: Massaga's Queen Cleophis allegedly concieves a son of Alexander (named Alexander)

April - Alexander captures 'Rock of Aornus', Indian stronghold

May [July] - Battle of the Hydaspes: Alexander defeats King Porus; Death of Bucephalas

September - Army refuses further advance at river Hyphasis; Alexander orders retreat

Autumn - Death of officer Coenus; Roxane's first child dies at birth at the river Acesines

November - Start of voyage down the Indus

December - Campaign against the Mallians: Alexander's lung pierced by an arrow

325 BC

June - Craterus leads part of the army through Arachosia towards Carmania

July - Alexander reaches Indian Ocean

August - Alexander starts march through Gedrosian desert

September 20/21 - Fleet under command of Nearchos sets sail for Persian Gulf

October/November - Alexander reaches Pura, capital of Gedrosia

December - Reunion of Alexander and Craterus in Carmania

Other events - Mercenary revolts in Bactria; Desertion of Harpalus

324 BC

Winter [December 325 BC]- First reunion between Alexander and Nearchos near Salmus, Carmania

Winter/Spring - 'Reign of Fear': Alexander punishes and executes Persian satraps who abused power in his absence

January - Restoration of tomb of Cyrus the Great

February - Alexander orders mass wedding at Susa, Persia: marriage to Statira, daughter of Darius III, and to Parysatis, daughter of Artaxerxes III

Spring - Second reunion between Alexander and Nearchos near mouth of the Tigris

April/May - Alexander founds last Alexandria (Charax) at the mouth of river Tigris

July - Mutiny (or strike) of the army at Opis, Mesopotamia

August 4 [September 3] - Alexander issues Exiles' Decree

Summer - Craterus leaves with veterans for Macedonia

October - Death of Hephaestion, Alexander's lifelong friend and lover, in Ecbatana

323 BC

Winter - Campaign against Cossaeans

April - Alexander returns in Babylon

May - Funeral of Hephaestion

June 10 - Alexander dies after ten days of illness

321 BC

Ptolemy hi-jacks Alexander's sarcophagus and brings Alexander's body to Egypt

Winter - December-February; Spring - March-May; Summer - June-August; Autumn - September-November; [ ] - alternative dating

Timeline compiled according to accounts of Arrian, Curtius Rufus, Plutarch, Diodorus Siculus, Justin and especially the footnotes and comments of their translators and editors. All dates mentioned are subject to debate. For corrections or suggestions please e-mail me.

Written by nick

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